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Comparison of Society Guidelines for the Management and Surveillance of Pancreatic Cysts


Importance  The identification of incidental pancreas cystic lesions (PCLs) has increased in recent decades with the expanded use and improved sensitivity of cross-sectional imaging. Because the overall risk of malignancy associated with PCLs is low, yet the relative morbidity of pancreatic surgery is high, evidence-based guidelines are necessary for appropriate surveillance and management. Therefore, this article provides a review of existing guidelines regarding surveillance and management of PCLs and highlights recent advances in the diagnostic evaluation of cysts and the postresection management of mucinous lesions.

Observations  There are 5 main guidelines related to the management of PCLs: the American Gastrointestinal Association (AGA) guidelines, the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) guidelines, the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommendations, the European evidence-based guidelines, and the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP)/Fukuoka guidelines. These guidelines are based on retrospective studies that do not account or control for most tumor- and patient-specific factors. These guidelines also vary in scope, recommendations for surgical resection vs surveillance, as well as duration and type of follow-up.

Conclusions and Relevance  PCL guidelines should be viewed within the context of the data limitations on which they are based. PCL subtype-specific guidelines on surveillance and treatment are needed. In the future, the integration of cyst-specific genomic analysis, as well as evolutions in advanced diagnostic tools, such as cyst fluid next-generation sequencing and EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy, may also better inform treatment guidelines. Owing to the current low-quality evidence on which many guidelines are based and the inherent morbidity of pancreas surgery, it is imperative that patients with PCLs are referred to institutions with advanced diagnostics and a multidisciplinary approach to patient surveillance and management.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies for pancreatic solid tumors: An overview

Author AlbertoLarghia, MihaiRimbaș, GianenricoRizzatti, Carmine Carbone, Antonio Gasbarrini, Guido Costamagna, Sergio Alfieri, Giampaolo Tortora


The close proximity of the endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) probe to the pancreas, coupled with the ease with which a needle can be inserted into a pancreatic lesion, have contributed to the development of EUS-guided therapies for both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine pancreatic neoplasms. EUS-guided fine needle injection of different types of drugs, implantation of fiducial markers to facilitate stereotactic body radiation therapy or of radioactive seeds to perform brachytherapy, and the use of different thermal and nonthermal ablation devices and techniques have all been tested in preliminary human studies. This manuscript will present the available evidence accumulated thus far in the field of EUS-guided oncological treatment of pancreatic solid tumors, along with a look into possible future applications.

Hepatocellular carcinoma in adult thalassemia patients


Beta-thalassemia represents a heterogeneous group of haemoglobin inherited disorders, among the most common genetic diseases in the world, frequent in the Mediterranean basin. As beta-thalassemia patients' survival has increased over time, previously unknown complications are observed with increasing frequency. Among them, an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been registered. Our aim is to reduce inequalities in diagnosis and treatment and to offer patients univocal recommendations in any institution.The members of the panel - gastroenterologists, radiologists, surgeons and oncologists -were selected on the basis of their publication records and expertise. Thirteen clinical questions, derived from clinical needs, and an integration of all the committee members' suggestions, were formulated. Modified Delphi approach involving a detailed literature review and the collective judgement of experts, was applied to this work.Thirteen statements were derived from expert opinions' based on the current literature, on recently developed reviews and on technological advancements. Each statement is discussed in a short paragraph reporting the current key evidence. As this is an emerging issue, the number of papers on HCC in beta-thalassemia patients is limited and based on anecdotal cases rather than on randomized controlled studies. Therefore, the panel has discussed, step by step, the possible differences between beta-thalassemia and non beta-thalassemia patients. Despite the paucity of the literature, practical and concise statements were generated.This paper offers a practical guide organized by statements describing how to manage HCC in patients with beta-thalassemia.

A Nomogram-Based Prognostic Model for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Sorafenib


Among scores and staging systems used for HCC, none showed a good prognostic ability in patients with advanced HCC treated with Sorafenib. We aimed to evaluate predictive factors of overall survival (OS) and drug response in HCC patients undergoing Sorafenib included in the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA.) multicenter cohort. Patients in the ITA.LI.CA database treated with Sorafenib and updated on 30 June 2019 were included. Demographic and clinical data before starting Sorafenib treatment were considered. For the evaluation of predictive factors for OS, a time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used. A total of 1107 patients were included in our analysis. The mean age was 64.3 years and 81.7% were male. Most patients were staged as BCLC B (205, 18.9%) or C (706, 65.1%). The median time of Sorafenib administration was 4 months (interquartile range (IQR) 2-12), and the median OS was 10 months (IQR: 4-20). A total of 263 patients (33.8%) out of 780 with available evaluation experienced objective tumoral response to Sorafenib. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.284), maximum tumoral diameter (HR 1.100), plasma total bilirubin (HR 1.119), aspartate amino transferase assessed as multiple of the upper normal value (HR 1.032), alpha-fetoprotein ≥200 ng/mL (HR 1.342), hemoglobin (HR 0.903) and platelet count (HR 1.002) were associated with OS at multivariate Cox regression analysis. Drug response was predicted by maximum tumoral diameter and platelet count. A novel prognostic nomogram for patients undergoing Sorafenib is hereby proposed. The novelty introduced is the comprehensive patient's assessment using common markers of patient's general status, liver damage and function and HCC biology. Further studies are required to test its accuracy and provide external validation.

Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Applicability of First-Line Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab in a Real-Life Setting


Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Applicability of First-Line Atezolizumab/Bevacizumab in a Real-Life Setting. Plaz Torres MC, Lai Q, Piscaglia F, Caturelli E, Cabibbo G, Biasini E, Pelizzaro F, Marra F, Trevisani F, Giannini EG. J Clin Med. 2021 Jul 21;10(15):3201. doi: 10.3390/jcm10153201. PMID: 34361985 Free PMC article. Review. Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the new frontier for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the first trial with tremelimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 inhibitor, increasing evidence has confirmed that these drugs can significantly extend the survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a matter of fact, the overall survival and objective response rates reported in patients with advanced HCC treated with ICIs are the highest ever reported in the second-line setting and, most recently, the combination of the anti-programmed death ligand protein-1 atezolizumab with bevacizumab-an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody-demonstrated superiority to sorafenib in a Phase III randomized clinical trial. Therefore, this regimen has been approved in several countries as first-line treatment for advanced HCC and is soon expected to be widely used in clinical practice. However, despite the promising results of trials exploring ICIs alone or in combination with other agents, there are still some critical issues to deal with to optimize the prognosis of advanced HCC patients. For instance, the actual proportion of patients who are deemed eligible for ICIs in the real-life ranges from 10% to 20% in the first-line setting, and is even lower in the second-line scenario. Moreover, long-term data regarding the safety of ICIs in the population of patients with cirrhosis and impaired liver function are lacking. Lastly, no biomarkers have been identified to predict response, and thus to help clinicians to individually tailor treatment. This review aimed to summarize the state of the art immunotherapy in HCC and, by analyzing a large, multicenter cohort of Italian patients with HCC, to assess the potential applicability of the combination of atezolizumab/bevacizumab in the real-life setting.

Monofocal hepatocellular carcinoma: how much does size matter?

Background & aims: According to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, monofocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is classified as early (BCLC A) irrespective of its size, even though controversies still exist regarding staging and treatment of large tumours. We aimed at evaluating the appropriate staging and treatment for large (>5 cm) monofocal (HCC).

Methods: From the Italian Liver Cancer database, we selected 924 patients with small early monofocal HCC (2-5 cm; SEM-HCC), 163 patients with larger tumours (>5 cm; LEM-HCC) and 1048 intermediate stage patients (BCLC B).

Results: LEM-HCC patients had a worse overall survival (OS) than SEM-HCC (31.0 vs 49.0 months; P < .0001), and this was confirmed at multivariate analysis (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.29-2.05; P < .0001). The small difference in OS between LEM-HCC and BCLC B patients (31.0 vs 27.0 months; P = .03) disappeared in the multivariate model (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.77-1.25; P = .89). In all monofocal tumours, treatment was the strongest independent predictor of survival, with a progressively decreasing survival benefit moving from "curative" to "palliative" therapies. The survival of resected patients with LEM-HCC was significantly shorter than that of SEM-HCC (44.0 vs 78.0 months; P = .002), but liver resection provided the highest survival benefit in both groups compared to other treatments.

Conclusions: Monofocal HCC larger than 5 cm should not be staged as BCLC A and either a different staging system or a different subgrouping of patients (e.g. BCLC AB) should be used. Liver resection, if feasible, remains the recommended treatment for all these patients.

Changes in hepatocellular carcinoma aggressiveness characteristics with an increase in tumor diameter


Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis depends on both liver and tumor determinants, especially on maximum tumor diameter, multifocality, and presence of portal vein thrombosis, despite apparently complete tumor removal by resection or liver transplantation.

Aims: To examine parameters of hepatocellular carcinoma aggressiveness as tumor size increases.

Methods: A large hepatocellular carcinoma database was examined for trends in serum alpha-fetoprotein and the percentage of patients with macroscopic portal vein thrombosis or tumor multifocality.

Results: A total of 13,016 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were identified having full tumor and survival data. Of these, 76.56% were male and 23.44% were female, with a median age of 64.4 years. We found that as the maximum tumor diameter increased, there was a significant trend for increased alpha-fetoprotein levels (P<0.001) and an increased percentage of patients with either portal vein thrombosis or tumor multifocality, each P<0.0001. Furthermore, the increases of both alpha-fetoprotein and portal vein thrombosis were proportionately greater than the related maximum tumor diameter increases. These trends of increased alpha-fetoprotein, portal vein thrombosis, and multifocality with increasing maximum tumor diameter had non-linear patterns. Within alpha-fetoprotein and multifocality trends, there were identifiable sub-trends associated with specific maximum tumor diameter ranges.

Conclusions: The greater fold-increases in alpha-fetoprotein and portal vein thrombosis compared with increases in maximum tumor diameter imply that hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics may change with increasing size to a more aggressive phenotype, suggesting that follow-up tumor sampling might be useful, in addition to baseline tumor sampling, for optimal therapeutic choices to be made.

Time-Varying mHAP-III Is the Most Accurate Predictor of Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Transarterial Chemoembolization


Introduction: The prognosis of patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is extremely variable, and a confounding factor is that TACE is often repeated several times. We retrospectively evaluated the accuracy of different prognostic scores and staging systems in estimating overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: An analysis considering prognostic models as time-varying variables was performed, calculating OS from the time of TACE to the time of the subsequent treatment. Total follow-up time for each patient was therefore split into several observation times accounting for each TACE procedure. Values of the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to compare different systems. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify additional factors predictive of OS. We analyzed 1,610 TACE performed in 1,058 patients recorded in the Italian Liver Cancer database from 2008 through 2016.

Results: The median OS of the enrolled patients was 41 months. According to LRT χ2 and AIC values based on the time-varying analysis, mHAP-III achieved the best values (41.72 and 4,625.49, respectively, p < 0.0001), indicating the highest predictive performance compared with all other scores (HAP, mHAP-II, ALBI, and pALBI) and staging systems (MELD, ITALICA, CLIP, MESH, MESIAH, JIS, HKLC, and BCLC). In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, mHAP-III maintained an independent effect on OS (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.55, p < 0.0001). Time-varying age, alcoholic etiology, radiologic response to TACE, and performing ablation or surgery after TACE were additional significant variables resulting from the multivariable model.

Conclusion: An innovative time-varying analysis revealed that mHAP-III was the most accurate model in predicting OS in patients with HCC undergoing TACE. Other clinical pre- and post-TACE variables were also found to be relevant for this prediction.

Surveillance as Determinant of Long-Term Survival in Non-Transplanted Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

Purpose: We aimed at assessing the impact of surveillance on long-term survival in HCC patients.

Methods: From the ITA.LI.CA database, we selected 1028 cases with long (≥5 years, LS group) and 2721 controls with short-term survival (<5 years, SS group). The association between surveillance and LS was adjusted for confounders by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Survival of surveilled patients was presented both as observed and corrected for the lead-time bias, and the comparison of survival between surveillance and no surveillance groups was also performed after balancing the baseline characteristics with inverse probability weights (IPW).


Results: LS patients were more frequently diagnosed under surveillance (p < 0.0001), and had more favorable baseline characteristics. Surveillance was an independent predictor of LS (OR = 1.413, 95% CI 1.195-1.671; p < 0.0001). The observed and the lead-time corrected survival of surveilled patients were significantly longer compared to the survival of not surveilled patients (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0008, respectively). In IPW adjusted populations, no survival differences were demonstrated between the two groups (p = 0.30).

Conclusions: Surveillance, increasing early-stage diagnosis and applicability of curative treatments, is a fundamental determinant of long-term survival in HCC patients. A wide implementation of surveillance programs should be pursued in order to improve HCC patients' prognosis.

The changing scenario of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy: an update

Background and aims: Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is changing in most areas of the world. This study aimed at updating the changing scenario of aetiology...

Articolo in Evidenza

Linee guida

  • raccomandazioni sviluppate in modo sistematico per assistere medici e pazienti nelle decisioni sulla gestione appropriata di specifiche condizioni cliniche

  • L'Istituto Superiore di Sanità pubblica le Linee guida e gli aggiornamenti delle stesse, previa verifica della conformità della metodologia adottata a standard definiti e resi pubblici dallo stesso Istituto, nonché della rilevanza delle evidenze scientifiche dichiarate a supporto delle raccomandazioni.